Hypothesis – Spoken Language is spoken more formally and has more correct grammar compared to text language.



  • (laugh) – paralinguistic feature
  • Whaddre you doin’? – dialect omission.


  • lol – Initialism
  • wud- Initialism



Hypothesis– Other people: older, younger, more or less intelligent, more ‘sophisticate’ or of a different generation etc don’t have the job of telling people how to speak, both in the online language and spoken language; the people speaking or writing those languages can be the deciphers of how they do that. Everyone is allowed to be different even in the same language – one doesn’t have to formal and the other informal; emotionless and emotional. Both can have para-linguistic, prosodic and linguistic features. What rules say they can’t?


  • Formal n Informal

Definition of Formal: Formal is when everything is proper, no shortcuts are taken in the way things are said or written; something done in accordance with convention or etiquette; suitable for or constituting an official or important occasion. Officially sanctioned or recognized.

Definition of informal: The opposite to formal; having a relaxed, friendly, or unofficial style, manner, or nature; denoting the grammatical structures, vocabulary, and idiom suitable to everyday language and conversation rather than to official or formal contexts.


‘Your parents will make friends’  – It is all proper: no slang; abbreviations; no hedges – where things are vague.

‘Yeah’ – A more casual way to say yes.


‘Kinda’ – an informal way to say ‘kind of’ by merging words.

‘How are you feeling?’ – no form of informal language, all formal.

  • Emotions


Shown more or less in the para-linguistic features – body language, tone; and prosodic features e.g voice- pitch, pace etc. ( Happy by smiling).


‘Emojis’ – Emoticons which are graphic symbols representing emotions.

‘Naaww’ – Repeated letters for emphasis in this case that they care.

‘xx’ – A letter that represents kisses which refers to the feeling between people – good friends or relationship.

  • Para – linguistic – non verbal communication.


Body language – A shrug may mean someone isn’t sure of something.



‘….’- pauses – showing that they are thinking.

  • Prosodic features


Pitch – If it is low it give the effect that a male is talking.

Volume – If someone is shouting it may mean that they are angry or trying to get someones attention.

Pace – If the pace is fast they could show that the person is worried or in a rush.


Emojis – Smile face may mean they’re happy.

Punctuation – shows where people take breaths.

Capital Letters – shows what is important – town, names etc. – STOP may mean it’s important or the person is angry.

  • Linguistic Features – Words







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